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Shenyuan: Architectural grammar, traditional invention and urban regeneration

   Release date: 2022-03-02     Hits: 4    Comment: 0    
Note:   GoodShanghaistoryisanimportantpartofShanghai'surbansoftpowerconstructionintheeraofglobalization.Animportantthemeinth
   GoodShanghaistoryisanimportantpartofShanghai'surbansoftpowerconstructionintheeraofglobalization.Animportantthemeintheeraofglobalizationistheidentityofmodernpeople.Togetridofthenarrativepatternofthebinaryoppositionbetweenglobalismandnationalism,weneedtogodeepintotheurbancontextandformaunique"mycity"narrative.ThediscussionoftheglobalnarrativeofShanghai'surbanimageshouldbeconsideredunderthethemeofgreatchangesthathavenotoccurredinacentury.Fromtheworldorderledbyallnationstothe"wideviewoftheearth",tothenation-state,andthentothegloballocaldiscussion,thedebateandconfrontationonglobalizationandlocalizationhaveneverstopped.GloballocalizationorgloballocalizationwasfirstcoinedbyAmericansociologistRolandRobertsoninthe1990s.English"global"and"local"werecombinedinto"global",andthenintoafamouswordexpression"globalization",Itisusedtorepresentitsbasicconceptof"cateringtoaspecificmarketorindividuallovewhileproducingaproductwithstandardsignificance,soastoopenthemarketoftheproduct".Fromaneconomicconcepttoaculturalconcept,"theconceptofgloballocalizationincludeswhatpeopleusuallycallglobalandlocalthings-or,moregenerally,universalandspecialthings-thatexistsimultaneouslyanddependoneachother."Withthe"globalturn"ofglobalizationresearch,rudometovgenerallydescribestheriseofgloballocalizationresearchinthefieldofHumanitiesandSocialSciencesinrecentyearsandthe"change"oftheoryandmethodologycausedbyit.Comparedwiththewesternconceptofgloballocalizationasaneconomicandculturalconcept,Chinesescholarsprefertoregarditasapoliticalhistoricalconcept.Forexample,Mr.ZhangKaiyuanregardsgloballocalizationasacompromisesolutiontothecontradictionbetweencosmopolitanismandnationalism.TheShanghaiWorldExpoCulturalPark,whichopenedattheendof2021,isanimportantcaseofdissectingtherelationshipbetweentraditionalinventionsandurbanregenerationunderthegloballocalizationshift.
 
  I.attheendof2021,theShanghaiWorldExpoCulturalPark(northarea),locatedontheBankoftheHuangpuRiver,opened.Thisisathemeparkbuiltonthesiteofthe2010ShanghaiWorldExpo.Thesloganof"BetterCity,betterlife"putforwardbytheShanghaiWorldExpohasinspiredmorepeopletothinkandaskaboutthecityanditscivilization,thatis,whatkindofcitycanmakelifebetter.Infact,thisisalsoatopicthaturbanthinkerssuchasMoore,Howard,diggs,Mumford,CorbusierandJacobshavebeenthinkingaboutforalongtime.Anideologicalhistoryofurbanplanninganddesigninthe20thcentury,fromgardencity,gloriouscity,balletCity,originalcity,toregionalcity,monumentCity,highwaycityandinformationcity,isbasicallyahistorycenteredontheaboveproposition.
 
  Asanimportantpartoftheurbanrenewalof"oneriver,oneriver"inShanghai,theExpoCulturalParkcoversanareaofabout2squarekilometers.Thenorthareaoftheparkopenedinthefirstphasecoversanareaof85hectares,whichismainlycomposedofquietforest,ExpoGarden,Shenyuan,CentralLakeandotherlandscapeareasandscenicspots.InthisparknamedaftertheExpoculture,theoriginalsiteoftheExpoactuallyaccountsforonlyapartofit.Itistransformedfromfourreservedvenues,includingtheFrenchPavilion,theItalianPavilion,theRussianpavilionandtheLuxembourgPavilion.Throughthosetallbuildingswithexoticcustoms,peoplecanvaguelyfeelthebustleofpeopleinthatyear.
 
  ThemostremarkablethingabouttheExpoCulturalParkistheconstructionofaclassicalJiangnangarden-Shenyuan.ShenyuanfullyabidesbythearchitecturalnormsofJiangnangardens,andfollowstherulesoftheconstructionofChineseclassicalJiangnangardens.GardensadvocateTaoismandnature,whichisactuallybehindtheChinesephilosophyoflife.TheearliestandmostsystematicgardeningworkinChina,Yuanye,saidthatgardening,firstofall,isrelatedtotheland.Itisappropriatetotheland,andthegardenstructureisappropriate.Thelandforgardeningisthebestinthemountainsandforests,becausethemountainsandwoodlandsare"naturallyinterestinganddonotbothertheworkofpersonnel".TheoriginalsiteofPudongWorldExpotakenbyShenyuanislocatedontheBankofHuangpuRiverandunderLupuBridge.Althoughitisintheinnerringroad,itcanavoidthenoiseofthecity.Althoughtherearenomountainsandforests,ithaswildinterest.Accordingtotheplan,theShanghaiWorldExpoParkshouldnotonlybuildgardensandmanagewater,butalsobuildmountains.Usingmodernafforestationtechnology,ahighmountaincanbebuiltfromtheground.Thisisthepowerofthecityandhasitsownmomentum.
 
  Gardeningisthecreationoftheenvironment.Stones,pavilionsandcorridorsbuildanorganicandminiatureuniverse.Theyrespectthecosmologyof"theunityofheavenandman",whichis"althoughmadebyman,justliketheopeningofheaven".TheclassicalgardensinthesouthoftheYangtzeRiverreposetheideallifeofscholars,whichis"enoughtoenjoyleisure,carefreetoprotectthehouse"and"findingleisureisablessing,knowingandenjoyingisanimmortal".Ancientliteratiandbureaucratsbuiltgardensinthecity,whichisaretreatafterfrustration.Theyhopetohideinthecityandenjoyrurallifeintheurbanlandscape,whichisanotherkindofembrace.Theprocessofbuildingmountains,managingwater,plantingandbuildingisalsoaprocessofrebuildingthemeaningsystemwiththehelpofrenaming.Namingisdefinition.Shenyuannamedthehall,hall,hall,porchandpavilioninthegardenasmooninvitationhall,Magnoliahall,heartappreciationhall,YanyubuildingandlistPavilionrespectively.ThesenamesborrowedthemostclassicimagesofJiangnancontext.TherockeryinthegardenismadeofTaihuLakestone.TaihuLakestoneis"firmandmoistinnature,withembeddedspace,penetratingeyes,Wanzhuananddangerousandstrangepotential","itisonlyappropriatetoplantinfrontofthehall,orunderQiaoSongqiflowers,installandtreattherockery,andlistmanygreatviewsinthegardenPavilions".Withitstransparent,leakyandthinphysicalnature,itevokesthespiritofthesouthoftheYangtzeRiver."AspoonfulwillmaketheJianghuvast".ThedesigneralsorecreatedtheeightscenesofShenyuan,andnamedthemsuccessivelyasdrunkenredYingxia,cocalateferry,Yutangspring,pinespring,QuYunnaturalfragrance,autumnriversunset,mistyrainPenglaiandlotusfishmusic.Ofcoursewecanfollowtheplan.Althoughthereareobviousgapsanddisplacementsbetweenwordsandobjects,wordsandscenes,itdoesnotpreventeveryvisitorinfiltratinginthisculturalsystemfromimaginingthelandscapeworld.
 
  Second,asearlyas1882,theearliestprivategardensincetheopeningoftheportwasbuiltonthewestsideofJing'anTemple,whichwasnamedShenyuanatthattime.Obviously,thisisagoodstructurethatpioneeredthetrendofmoderntimes.Unfortunately,thisgardenwassoonmergedbyYuyuanandsoonbecameaflashinthepan.Theprivategarden,whichwasbathedinEuropeanstyleandrainmorethan100yearsago,certainlycannotcontinuethesubtlemeaningoftoday'sShenyuan.EventherishegardenandLuxianggardeninShanghaiinthelateMingDynasty,whichthedesignersofShenyuanwanttopaytributeto,areonlytransformedintoseveralsymbolsinShenyuan.Forexample,theelementssuchastheinterestbridgeofrishegardenandtheLuxiangpoolofLuxianggardenarespeciallyretainedinthegarden,that'sall.Gardeningisnotonlyakindofrhetoric,asetofgrammar,butalsoasetofideasandspirit.Inotherwords,thereareconsiderationsandcalculationsbehindwhichelementsandhowtousethem.Inthissense,wemaywanttounderstandQianYong's"gardeningislikewritingpoetry"inFuYuanCongHuaintheQingDynastyfromanotherangle.Thecommongroundbetweengardeningandcompositionisthat"wemustmaketwistsandturnsinaccordancewiththelawandechobackandforth;weshouldavoidstackingandmiscellaneous,sowecancallitagoodstructure".Asfarasarchitectureandliteratureitselfisconcerned,itisanarrativeskill,whichcanberealisticorfictional.Itisfictionalrealismandrealisticfiction,butliteratureandarchitecturealsohaveahigherconcept,thatis,thehistoricalviewbehindtheskill.
 
  Fortoday'sShanghai,itsintentionisobviouslynottoinsertandcopyafakeJiangnangardenontheBankoftheHuangpuRiverwithmanytallbuildings.Shenyuangarden,whichstandsontheBankofHuangpuRiver,isnotjustanordinarygarden.Ithasamoregrandatmosphereandreposesthedeepermeaningofthecity.SomepeoplemarktheShanghaiWorldExpoCulturalParkastheCentralParkofNewYork,whichisactuallyamisunderstandingoftheShanghaiWorldExpoCulturalPark.In1857,facedwiththeproblemsofoverpopulationandlackofclosenesstonatureinthecentralurbanarea,Olmsted,thepioneerofmodernurbanpublicgardens,cooperatedwithoakstouseanopenspaceinNewYorkCitytotransformandplanitintoaplaceforcitizens'publicsightseeingandentertainment.Thisistheworld'searliesturbanpark-NewYorkCentralPark.Theconceptof"bringingthecountrysideintothecity"advocatedbyOlmstedhaspromotedtheriseofparksasanewtypeofpublicgardensinmoderncities.Howard's"gardencity"isacomprehensivemodelwithbothurbanandruraladvantages.Thisconceptistobreaktheabnormalseparationbetweenurbansocietyandnature.TheExpoCulturalParkisnotintendedtobeamirrorandcopyofWesternideas.Itspublicityandopennessactuallyshowthepeople'sattributeofthecity.ItisanewJiangnangardenopentothepublicattheExpositewiththespiritofembracinghundredsofriversandrelyingonvariousexcellentculturalresources.Jiangnangardensinhabittheidealsoftraditionalliterati,andtheir"bookish"and"Seclusion"aredeliberatelyseparatedfromthemarketandpopularareas.Shenyuangardenisapublicgarden,whichcommunicatesupanddownwitheleganceandcustoms.AlthoughitfollowstherulesofJiangnangardeninstructure,itiscompletelytheproductofmoderncivilizationinspirit.Ontheonehand,itshouldretaintheaestheticstyleandartisticspiritoftraditionalJiangnangardensintheconstructionofTaiwanpavilionsandpavilions.Ontheotherhand,itdoesnotrefusemarketatmosphereordailylife.Itshouldbeelegantandvulgar,traditionalandmodern.Intermsofcreation,itdoesnotcompletelycreateaclosedworldinthepot.Ithasaninteractiveanddialoguerelationshipwiththesurroundingmodernbuildings,andalwaysremindsvisitorsthatthisisnotaJiangnangardenintheclassicalsense.WhentakingphotosandclockingininsteadofQuShuibei,andthereproductionofthemechanicalageinsteadofthesingingofliteratipoetry,thetraditionwillloseitsoriginalsoil,andwedon'thavetosticktotheauthenticity.Inthissense,Shenyuanisrebuildingthetraditionandcallingforalosturbanpoetry.Shenyuan'sintimacytonatureandgazingatpeople'sheartsonceagainpulledthehesitanturbanpeoplebacktotheirdailylife,bridgingtheboundaryandgapbetweenpoetryanddailylife.Inadreaminthegarden,DuLiniangandLiuMengmeistagedarealandillusorydreamof"feelingnowheretostartandgoingdeep"inthebackgarden."Jieluisinthehumanenvironment,andthereisoccasionalnoiseofcarsandhorses".Modernurbanitescan't"forgettheirwords"inthegardenliketheancients.Thisisamodernversionofthegardendream,anditisalsoalyricpoemfromtheclassicalJiangnantocontemporaryShanghai.
 
  Third,whybuildaJiangnangardenintheExpoCulturalPark?TheShanghaiWorldExpoalreadyhasaChineseNationalPavilion,whichtakestheChinesewisdominurbandevelopmentasthethemeandshowstheChineseculturalspiritandtemperamentof"thecrownoftheEast,theprosperousChina,thegranaryoftheworldandtherichpeople".TheChinaPavilionoftheWorldExporepresentsthecanonicaltraditionofChinesecultureandnationalaesthetics,whiletheJiangnangardenisalocaltraditionignoredbyglobalizationandthegrandnarrativeofthenation-state.However,thislocaltraditioncanbemorecloseandrecognizedbythepeoplelivinginitbecauseitisclosetodailylife.
 
  ShenyuanisadeeppartofHuangpuRiverwaterfrontpublicspace.Inrecentyears,throughthetransformationandreconstructionof"oneriver,oneriver",Shanghaihastriedtocreateadiversifiedpublicspacewithsharedenvironment,accessibletransportation,openspace,continuoushistoricalcontext,sharedbyallandgovernedbyall.Jiangnangardensundoubtedlyenrichthisstate.Withthehelpofaclassicalandmodernspace,itisconducivetounifythetwotraditionsofJiangnancultureandShanghaistyleculture.Ofcourse,thisisnotonlyaremembranceandtributetotheirowntraditions,butalsoanewreflectionontheirfuturepath.Orforurbanoperators,facingthefutureisfirstfacingthepast.
 
  Gardenisnotonlyarealspace,butalsoameaningspaceintegratingimaginationspaceandmemoryspace.Onceitwasborn,itwasconstantlyvisitedanddescribedbylatergenerations,anditsimagewasconstantlyrewritten.Jiangnangardenisacomplextextmixedwithdreamsandmemories,includingboththetextofarchitectureitselfandtheregeneratedtextsungbypoetry.Forexample,aroundCanglangPavilionandHumbleAdministrator'sgarden,thetitles,stonecarvings,couplets,paintings,poemsandtravelnotescarriedoutbyscholarsandpoetsofalldynastiesconstituteanothermorecomplexpapergarden,whichhascondensedintoalongcollectivememoryinthecontextofJiangnanthroughtheabrasionofyears.
 
  Aroundthegardenanditsmeaningreconstruction,architectureandliteratureshowtheirstrengths.Butthetwoarenotnecessarilysequential.Sometimestheycanalsobewrittenbackwards.Sometimesthereisaliterarytextfirstandthenanarchitecturaltext.Forexample,thereisthenovel"adreamofRedMansions",thenthemoderngrandviewgarden,thenovel"innocenceMuseum",andthentherealversionoftheinnocenceMuseum."Shenyuan"getsitsnamefromShanghai.Althoughitisbuiltoutofthinair,italsohasabase.Luxianggardenisoneofitsbase.Coincidentally,WangAnyi'snovelTianxianggardenisalsobasedonLuxianggarden.Fromthisdimension,asthe"Shenyuan"ofJiangnangardenandthepaper"Shenyuan"fictionalinTianxiang,itconstitutesacleverandcomplexintertextuality.ThestorytoldinTianxiangstartsinthe38thyearofJiajing(1559)andendsinthe6thyearofKangxi(1667).TheownerofTianxianggardenisShen.Thenovelisbasedongardening,buildingbuildingsandgardens.TheShenjiafamilyhasgonefromprosperityandluxurytoprosperity,andtheembroidery(Guembroidery)inTianxianggardenhasscatteredfromthefemaleworkersofrichandnoblefamiliestothepeople,spreadingbranchesandleavesamongthepeople.ThisfamilyhistorysurnamedShenisnotaprehistorybeforetheopeningofShanghai,thatis,whatProfessorChenSihecalled"a'prehistory'inwhichthebudofcommodityeconomyappearedinJiangnan,China".Theauthorwrotethegardentoseehistoricalknowledgeandhistoricalheartthroughhistoricalrecordsandimagination,Thepursuitis"thesoulofShanghaiatpresent-whatkindoffierceandspicyforcecanmakeShanghaigothroughreincarnationbutstillhavevitality?WhydoesShanghaidiefromlifebutinevitablycomebackfromthedead"?ThisisabigpropositionaboutthemodernityofShanghai.Shenyuan,bornattherighttime,hascometopursuethisbigproposition.Somescholarsbelievethat"Tianxiang"isfrom"empirical"to"constructive",andShenyuaninturnisfrom"constructive"to"empirical".BothofthemfollowLuxianggarden.However,themanuscriptof"Tianxiang"isfirst,andShenyuanislater.IfLuxianggardenisstillasnowandmudclaw,then"Tianxiang"inadvertentlyconstitutesthepredecessorofShenyuan.ShenyuangardenisaclevergraftingofindustrialcivilizationandJiangnanculture.Jiangnangardenrecreatesthenewnarrativeofthecityinanaturalandpowerfulembeddedway,highlightsthenewideaofbuildingShanghai'surbansoftpower,andconstructsanewShanghaiCultureintheintegrationofJiangnancultureandShanghaistyleculture.
 
  TheprehistoryofShanghaidescribedbyWangAnyiinTianxiangisahistoryobscuredbytheimpactresponsemodel.Fromthisperspective,"Tianxiang"istheprequelofShanghai.ThisendogenouspursuitofmodernityderivedfromthesouthoftheYangtzeRiverinthelateMingDynastyisnotawriter'sselfadmiration,butadialoguewithhistory.Tianxiangechoesthedebatebetweenthe"impactresponse"modelandthe"discoveryofhistoryinChina",whichhasbeenwidelydiscussedinthefieldofhistoryinrecentyears.Writers'ownwritinghaseffectivelyparticipatedinthediscussionofthistopic.TheprosperityofJiangnangardensiscloselyrelatedtothegerminationofcapitalistcommodityeconomyinthemiddleandlateMingDynasty.Withoutthedevelopmentofcommodityeconomy,therecanbenoJiangnangardensthatexcelinnature.Jiangnangardens,IndustrialRelicsandskyscrapersarenotonlytheproductofthedevelopmentandprosperityofcommodityeconomy,butalsofromthevitalityandvitalityofthepeople.Fromskyscrapers,bridgesanddockstogardensinthesouthoftheYangtzeRiver,Shanghai'surbanconstructionhasgraduallymovedfromthecatch-upandrapidmodernizationofbenchmarking,imitationandcatchinguptotheinternalmodernizationofselfdiscoveryandself-identity.Thisisnotonlyareflectiononmoderncities,butalsohowShanghaicanfaceandtraceitshistorymoreobjectivelyandrationally.Jiangnangardenmaintainsaslowrhythmoflifewhilemaintainingafast-pacedcity.Itdisplaysurbanrhythmandurbanthoughtbetweenfastandslow,historyandreality,traditionandmodernity,andthenrespondstoaclassicproposition-whatkindofcitycanmakelifebetter.
 
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